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تحقیقی - توضیح غایت در افعال الهی
 
تحقیقی
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اشاعره معتقدند که واجب تعالی در افعالش غرض ندارد. چرا که ذاتا بی نیاز از غیر خودش می باشد و این همان سخن ایشان است که:«افعال خداوند معلل به اغراض نیست».

نقد سخن اشاعره: اشاعره گمان کرده اند که وجود غایت در فعل فاعل ، مستلزم نقصان و کمود فاعل و نیازمندی وی به غایت می باشد_چرا که به گمان ایشان غایت همیشه بیرون از فاعل بوده و هموراه موجب استکمال فاعل می شود و استکمال در جایی است که فاعل فاقد آن کمال باشد_در حالی که خداوند کمال مطلق است.اما باید گفت وجود غایت برای فاعل مستلزم نیازمندی فاعل نیست،چرا که غایت ممکن است عین فاعل باشد

معتزله معتقدند که خداوند در افعال خویش غایات و اغراضی دارد اما این غایات مصالحی است که به خلایق مربوط می شود و بهره اش به ایشان می رسد.

نقد سخن معتزله :اشکال این نظریه این است که عالی اراده سافل کرده است در حالی که موجود شریف تر اولا وبالذات اراده موجود سافل را نمی کند و اگر غایتی که خداوند را به سوی فعل سوق داده باشد همان مصلحتی باشد که بر فعل مترتب می گردد در این صورت غیر خدا که همان مصلحت مترتب بر فعل است در خداوند تاثیر کرده است، با آنکه خداوند فاعل نخستین بوده وفاعلیتش تام می باشد و متوقف بر هیچ چیزی نیست.

حقیقت آن است که غایت خداوند در فعلش چیزی نیست جز همان ذات خودش، زیرا خداوند حبّ به ذات و کمالات ذاتی خود دارد و این حبّ به ذات مستلزم حبّ به آثار ذات و افعال صادر از ذات می باشد و در واقع همان ذات فاعل او را به سوی فعل بر می انگیزد و اما غایتی که بر فعل مترتب می گردد غایت بالتبع است و خداوند متعال فاعلی است که در فاعلیت خویش تام و کامل می باشد و علت نخستینی است که هر علتی به او منتهی می گردد،پس ذات متعالی او به اعتبار آنکه عین علم به نظام خیر می باشد،غایت است برای ذات او که به وجود آورندۀ همۀ خیرها و مبدا آغازین همۀ کمال هاست. (ترجمه وشرح نهایة الحکمة/علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبایی/ ترجمه دکتر علی شیروانی /جلد دوم.ص170_167)

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